Models of Cultural Differences
Course code
old course code
Course title in Estonian
Kultuurierinevuste mudelid
Course title in English
Models of Cultural Differences
ECTS credits
approximate amount of contact lessons
Teaching semester
spring 1
Assessment form
lecturer of 2018/2019  Spring semester
lecturer not assigned
lecturer of 2019/2020  Autumn semester
lecturer not assigned
Course aims
Developing a theoretical understanding for models of cultural difference and their application in intercultural practice.
Brief description of the course
The students will get to know the common theoretical approaches which describe cultural differences. Formost the focus will be on the works of intercultural theoreticians like Edward T. Hall and Geert Hofstede but not only. On the one hand the students will prepare and work with theoretical literature, present and discuss texts and develope a reflexive understanding of the applicability of these models and others alike. They will also learn how to apply these theoretical models on real intercultural settings. In order to learn that, they will do ethnographical and reflexive exercises like observational activities and theory based simulations of intercultural contact.
Independent work
Active participation in class, submitting the essay in time by the set deadline.
Learning outcomes in the course
By the end of this course, students will:
• have theoretical knowledge about the relevant models of cultural difference (mainly Edward T. Hall, Geert Hofstede);
• understand the importance, reach, criticism and applicability of theoretical models which are typical instruments of describing intercultural differences;
• be able to apply models of cultural differences in everyday life.
Assessment methods
Exam, based on:
• active participation during classroom discussions and activities;
• 1000 word critical essay based on ethnographic fieldwork;
• and presentation based on the essay.

Professor Anastassia Zabrodskaja
Study literature
Hall, E. T. 1959. The Silent Language. New York.
Hall, E. T. 1966. The Hidden Dimension. New York.
Hall, E. T. 1976 Beyond Culture. New York, pp. 129–140.
Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul Pedersen, Geert Hofstede 2002. Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures. Intercultural Press.
Geertz, C. 1973. The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Gudykunst, W., & Lee, C. 2003. Cross-cultural communication theories. In W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.) Cross-cultural and intercultural communication (pp. 7–34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gudykunst, W. 2003. Intercultural communication theories. In W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.) Cross-cultural and intercultural communication (pp. 167–190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Philipsen, G. 2003. Cultural communication. In W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.) Cross-cultural and intercultural communication (pp. 51–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Replacement literature
Hall, E. T. 1983. The Dance of Life. The Other Dimension of Time. New York. Anchor/ Doubleday.
Hall, E. T.; Hall, M. R. 1990. Understanding Cultural Differences. Germans, French and Americans. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press;
Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture’s Consequences. Second Edition.
Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks.
Kluckhohn, F. R.; Strodtbeck, F. L. 1961. Variations in Value Orientations. New York.